This was helpful. The best translations article is much more practical. And carry them in His bosom, Further, this argument for Scribes choosing better manuscripts has parallels from the Textual Criticism of non-Biblical works too. However, the TR is an example of 17th century textual criticism. Much of what Ive read over the years tends to elevate personal opinion and mud-slinging over an objective summary of the subject. 8 The grass withers, the flower fades, Now, that could be a good thing if you believe Westcott & Hort did a good job originally. To be clear, this list isnt exhaustive. For example take John 11:38 Jesus wept. If 25 manuscripts contain Jesus was upset, 30 said Jesus was filled with compassion, and 50 said Jesus wept, because the majority say Jesus wept, that will be in the WEB. Next, well look at the three competing theories on how to handle the less-than-1% of places where the text of the New Testament isnt completely agreed up on. He wrote Libretti for 'Job: a Musical Drama', 'A Psalmic Liturgy' and 16 Anthems for which his son Harold composed the music. Meanwhile, North Africa and the East were conquered by Muslims. My question is if the Critical Text is the text behind the NASB and comes primarily from two manuscripts that are of dubious quality, why do you prefer the NASB? Some say Septuagint, and others say the Masoretic Text. . 5 mistakes in 219 words is still pretty good. It goes like this: Please imagine that you were a scribe charged with copying the New Testament. Once the research was done, I just needed to type it up, which I do anyway to organize my thoughts. They are especially frequent in the Septuagint portion. Id also like to thank you for writing in a manner that is rather humble and identifying when youre putting forwards your opinion as well personally Ive always used the KJV, got saved using the KJV and have sought to know God better through the KJV etc, so when I started looking into this topic it was quite discouraging hearing/reading people absolutely castigating the Textus Receptus, saying its rubbish and is full of additions which werent part of the original text [speaker/author advocated critical text] it kind of made me rather depressed as it seemed as if everything I believed was based upon a lie and that the Bible which had gotten me through so many storms in life seemed to be shaky Honestly it truly was a stumbling block and something that Im still working through (planning on talking to my pastor about this whole topic haha~), so I can understand why the natural response for many Christians is to grow angry and condemn anyone who would seemingly attack the certainty of the Bible. The core message of the gospel isnt compromised in any of these documents. All the modern Greek Critical Texts bear an extremely strong resemblance to Westcott & Horts original 1881 Critical Text. I spent much of my (unfinished) series on marriage unpacking how this rebellious idea has catastrophic results when put into practice. In both classical and NT traditions there thus seems to be a scribal continuity of a basic standard text which remained relatively stable, preserved by the unforced action of copyists through the centuries who merely copied faithfully the text which lay before them. This is a well-known, well-documented scribal error, even having its own name. They have been made available to every generation (Psalm 33:11; Psalm 100:5; Psalm 119:89-90; Isaiah 59:21). However, the examples leave out one very important factor (which well get to in a moment. Not only is the parallel between NT transmissional history and that of Homer striking, it would appear that normal scribal activity and transmissional continuity would preserve in most manuscripts not only a very ancient text, but, Origen, the Alexandrian church father in the early third century, said, the extant versional manuscripts are virtually triple the extant Greek manuscripts in number. If you pick up any popular Bible (except the KJV and NKJV) its almost certainly translated primarily from the Alexandrian text type. Theres simply no way to know if the more accurate manuscripts were preserved this way. Textual criticism The Web sticks closer to the ASV text and the NASB says in its preface that it was following only the spirit and intent of the ASV. The Majority Text vs. The Greek manuscripts upon which the KJV is based Whether you count Bible translations based on the Critical Text vs Bible translations based on the Majority Text; or copies of the Greek Majority Text vs the Greek Critical Text, the Critical Text becomes the clear winner. Their desire is to preserve the legacy of the NASB95, as well as incorporate two major changes: The head referred to in verse 10 cannot refer to Christ nor any man as it would make nonsense of the preceding verses. You are using an out of date browser. from Princeton Theological Seminary in 1946 and taught there for five years. Now, lets look at Isaiah 40 in greater context, and youll see its clearly a Messianic passage. Is it possible that Jesus is talking about His prophecies in that chapter? 6. Introduction to the New Testament in the Original Greek: With Notes on Selected Readings by Westcott & Hort. We have an enormous number of copies, and if I was going to claim perfect preservation then I would need to pick one manuscript among the thousands that contains the text perfectly preserved. Textus Receptus 191 Variations in Scrivener's 1881 Greek New Testament from Beza's 1598 Textus Receptus Books Many Scanned Agros Church Matthew 1:1 Unicorn The Westcott and Hort Only Controversy New King James Version List of Omitted Bible Verses List of Bible verses not included in the ESV Pure Cambridge Edition Ephesians 3:9 Did God Preserve the Scriptures Perfectly in All Ages? (Note: Ive copy/pasted the only relevant difference, but you can: Click here to expand the full list of the Aland rules of Textual Criticism. That simply cannot be used as evidence to prove there were errors in the Bibles used by the church. If you look at the earlier papyrus, theres even more singular readings. Youre copying it down, Another stating of their position goes like this: The letter of Scripture has been preserved, without any corruption, in the original tongue. The individual words (plenary) have been preserved (Matthew 24:35; Psalm 12:6-7; I Peter 1:23). century. At what time did they stop having confidence that they knew the text they had was pure? And again, when he bringeth in the firstbegotten into the world, he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him. It is regarded as the oldest extant (existing) Greek copy of the Bible, and has been dated the early-mid 4th century. I think you are grossly mistaken about the WEBs translation of 1 Cor 11:10. The Septuagint text is the text that the Church has preserved. Now, because all the oldest manuscripts weve found are of the Alexandrian text type/family, its unsurprising that they ended up with a basically Alexandrian document. And I know that, whatsoever God doeth, it shall be for ever: nothing can be put to it, nor any thing taken from it: and God doeth it, that men should fear before him. Ecclesiastes 3:14. I havent spent much time researching it though, so its merely an at a glance opinion. How can I claim modern Bibles (well, the Greek/Hebrew from which they are translated) are entirely inerrant unless I have an inerrant text to translate from? And gently lead those who are with young. As I said before, I believe languages change over time, and therefore so will the text of Scripture, as demonstrated by our Lords quoting of the OT Scriptures. My Bible study group were puzzled that the NKJV Bible ends Matthew 20 with an extra sentence which doesnt appear in the more recent translations: The too lively satisfaction which I had displayed had aroused their suspicions as to the value of this manuscript. As that period also gave rise to the printing press, Bibles were available to the masses for the first time in history. Please notice the casual dismissal of the Byzantine text type by one of the most respected textual critics of our age. The two words textum and receptum were changed from the Latin accusative case (direct object) to the Latin nominative case (subject) to render it Textus Receptus. I dont see how it can be other than deliberate; one or the other was edited. The manuscripts finder Tischendorf who reckoned it as the greatest find of his life said the following: On nearly every page of the manuscript there are corrections and revisions, done by 10 different people. Most often, they are simple scribal errors. I've only just started looking at the CSB. It doesnt mean that there arent battles that have to be fought and frauds to be exposed. 2. dolos (127 times in the NT) will be consistently rendered as slave. Youre welcome. The longer form of the Homeric text is characterized by popular expansion and scribal improvement; the NT Western text generally is considered the uncontrolled popular text of the second century with similar characteristics. John Chrysostom ( 407) cited the Byzantine text of his time and is its oldest witness. The practice of Textual Criticism is not criticizing the Bible, its trying to recover the Bibles original text. For now, lets look at the underpinnings for the Majority Text theory. Hmm, could the Word here be Jesus? It would be okay even if you were angry (though Im glad you arent), Im nearly impossible to offend. And His work before Him. One scholar said of the Western text type: Words and even clauses are changed, omitted, and inserted with surprising freedom, wherever it seemed that the meaning could be brought out with greater force and definiteness. Unsurprisingly, they arent given too much weight because of this freeness. Consequently, their New Testament relied heavily on the two earliest (nearly) complete manuscripts we have: Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus, which well look at in detail shortly, Since these were the two oldest (nearly) complete texts available at the time, Westcott & Hort gave them tremendous weight. 6 The words of the LORD are pure words; Lets say that the five original copies each had five copies made of them, all made by faithful scribes. The Elzevir text is practically a reprint of the text of Beza 1565with about fifty minor differences in all. Does it matter much if Paul wrote a owl vs an owl? The words are in English. He also raised us up with him and seated us with him in the heavens in Christ Jesus, so that in the coming ages he might display the immeasurable riches of his grace through his kindness to us in Christ Jesus. So no, this verse doesnt teach the Doctrine of Preservation. I suppose if you know where all the errors are, you might want to make them publicly known so that they can be corrected. Your article clarified a few things for me and added some detail. (Dont ask how much re-writing that took.). . Im more than happy to discuss the story, but please comment on that article to keep things on topic (as Ive already requested). No other early manuscript of the Christian Bible has been so extensively corrected, They range from the alteration of a single letter to the insertion of whole sentences, That gross blunder, whereby a clause is omitted because it happens to end in the same word as the clause preceding, occurs no less than, Vaticanus has 197 particular readings, while Sinaiticus has 443, together with theCodex Sinaiticus, as they have the same, are the only two manuscripts that share that characteristic, the differences among the manuscripts [of the Gospels] have become great. By Bakershalfdozen July 14, 2008 in The Bible (KJV) Share More sharing options. Majority Text advocates will typically argue that the earliest Byzantine manuscripts were lost because no other climate on earth is as favorable for preserving documents as Egypt. How bad are They? Thats only a 2400 word difference (1.7%), and just two variants (the ending of Mark and the story of the woman caught in adultery) account for a significant portion of that difference. The mistakes which the original transcriber made are of perpetual recurrence. Most of the men were curious about my reference to textual critisism so I thought Id include a link for further reading. 3. Again, this is one of the longest articles on this website, but its so long because the topic is complex and our treatment of it fairly complete. First, please notice that its words (plural) not word (singular). This is a wonderful article and I enjoyed reading it as much as anything Ive read in the last year or so. And it means: So, truth in the KJV isnt unwarranted, but hardly the primary meaning. First of all, no scholar disputes the fact that Erasmus had studied variant readings . Im writing this paragraph very early in the morning. Is there an English translation of the Septuagint? sadly skipped because Again, the only reason they didnt give them any weight was because they (incorrectly) believed the Byzantine text was a combination of the Western and Alexandrian Text types. If you believe man can determine the mind of God by trying their best to reconstruct the original text, then you believe God has failed us. He said, Search the Scriptures. Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler.. So yeah, its WAY more complicated than that article makes it seem. on the blue letter bible (blb) website, the interlinear tool lets you compare translations of the new testament (word by word) to either the textus receptus (tr) or the morphological greek new testament (mgnt); depending on whether or not the base greek text of the translation you're examining is the tr (king james/new king james) or the mgnt the KJV] was not translated from any one printed edition of the Greek text. By an Alexandrian Church fathers own admission, manuscripts in Alexandria by 200 AD were already corrupt. Further, theres no possible way that hippioi (horses) was intended. Westcott & Hort believed the Byzantine text type was a combination of the Alexandrian and Western text types. (In a footnote, Royse helpfully defines significant singular readings as those singular readings that remain after exclusion of nonsense-readings and orthographic variants.). 20 He indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you. However, you didnt answer my question: do you acknowledge that the Textus Receptus is a work of Textual Criticism? (The Masoretic text is the traditional Hebrew text, and contains far fewer textual variants than the New Testament.) Thank for the kind words, and Im so glad you enjoyed the article. I think Im gonna get either the NKJV or NASB. Thats an average of 0.81 variants per verse between Vaticanus and Sinaiticus. Later it was taken over by his son, and eventually by Kurt Aland and his wife, along with others. Do you know where I can find one for the NT? And More Importantly, Why? That might seem like a lot, but remember the New Testament is just shy of 140,000 words (in Greek). Rather, decisions in textual criticism must be worked out afresh, passage by passage (the local principle). Thank you for this article. This translation will be available by the end of year 2021. Lets assume for the sake of argument that the Majority Text is essentially identical to the original. Again, the odds of all those scribes making the same error is vanishingly low. 1 Corinthians 11:8-10 (Berean Open Source Bible) In any event, the fact that Erasmus had only a handful of manuscripts during his preparation of the 1516 edition is irrelevant in regards to the reliability of the text underlying the KJV. The Johannine Comma of 1 John 5:7-8: Added or Removed? This aspect of Gods preservation of Scripture is just as crucial as the first. Theres good evidence that he had more manuscripts to choose from, but decided to use only those 7 (presumably because they were of the best quality, but we dont know for sure). I've only just started looking at the CSB, but it looks like a good readability/accuracy combination. The Textus Receptus was the result of the resources available at its time and it marked an important turning point in Bible translation and study. Matthew 20:16 New King James Version (NKJV) If you assume the mistakes are fairly randomly distributed, the Majority holds up quite well. Apparently, the note-writer regarded Codex Vaticanus as a museum-piece to be protected and preserved, rather than as a copy of Scripture to be used as such. In the Erasmus Textus Receptus section, you wrote: For a sense of scale, weve already seen that (doing the math and estimating) there are ~6470 textual variations between the Codex Vaticanus and Codex Vaticanus. You are saved by grace! because the next line also I was reading on a KJV only website that the NKJV does actually refer to the Hort text, just not as much as other modern versions. Matthew 19:30 New King James Version (NKJV) We dont have to wonder whether God merely preserved His thoughts, or His ideas. This should warn us to beware of novel theories broached by Bengel and to examine with more than normal diligence statements made by him in support of such theories. Codex Sinaiticus takes its name from where it was found: at the base of Mount Sinai. Also, if you want to look up Greek or Hebrew words words, I highly recommend the interlinear bible on biblehub.com. Heres the same verse properly translated, in an (unfinished) translation thats fast becoming my favorite. They knew clearly which ones were the true Words of God. Or to put it another way: The Majority Text method within textual criticism could be called the democratic method. However, small changes can have large effects. There are variations within each family, but overall their Textual Variants share a familial linkage with other members of their family. Wow! (Estienne was also known as Stephanus.) Professor Wevers was the internationally recognized scholar in the field of Septuagint Studies. Thus, manuscripts boasting significant numbers of particular readings cannot be relied upon. He taught English on CBC TV 'Let's Speak English'. I knew basically nothing about Textual Criticism before reading this. Theres no problem with confessions of faith in general. Who wouldnt want to have a Bible in which nothing was corrupt? They ignored all Byzantine readings and rejected them as being later and therefore not worth looking at. One reason could be that something is always lost in translation. Remember The Word is one of Jesus main titles, especially in the writings of John. They arent the only ones to say this either. I am so glad I sat down and read this all the way through! Im truly awed that someone created a single sentence for marketing that has echoed through the centuries. So Sir Constant held counsel in his troubled heart, while the smooth voice spoke on as the path descended steeply to the lake-side, and the whole world was gray as the speakers cloak. The Confessional Position Text: The Textus Receptus. Theres a Textual Variant on the word gentle. An inspired Bible that was not preserved would be little more than a tainted book of history and moral lessons. Believing in Jesus Christ for salvation is the act of trusting Him, and depending on His ability to keep you (Acts 17:30; Mark 1:15; Luke 17:21; Acts 3:19; Acts 20:21; Acts 26:20). This brings us to one of the strongest arguments for the Majority Text theory: that scribes preferred to copy better manuscripts. Again, over 75% of all Textual Variants are not meaningful, even if they are viable. And he said, What shall I cry? Is that really a position you want to take? (More on this in a moment.). One thing i wanted to mention is i recently came into possession of the Eastern Orthodox Bible, New Testament. Weve examined one of these Textual Variants here on Berean Patriot before, namely: The Johannine Comma of 1 John 5:7-8: Added or Removed? Verse 5 references the woman who did and does shave her head., which is almost certainly referring to the women on the Isle of Lesbos nearby, who shaved their heads to indicate they wouldnt be under male authority. It is her own head that she carries on her shoulders. Actually, we know it did we just dont know if it happened with errors. I read this article and the one you did on the best Bible version. Any further input that you have would be appreciated. Now that we have a basic overview, well look at each theory in (exhaustive) detail. apologiesi left our highly considered, in my last sentence. Therefore, if line of reasoning interests you, you can read more here. I want to save you the embarrassment of standing before God having led others astray. It seems even more like a stretch when you know the definition of the Hebrew word. We have thereby passed beyond purely numerical relations, and the necessity of examining the genealogy of both minority and majority has become apparent. It would be difficult to entrust our salvation in Jesus Christ to the very same God who could not keep His Word pure. Something that the TR can not boast nor the modern critical texts. So yeah, it probably does have some influence from Hort, and yes the OT base isnt exactly the same; it literally cant be the same since hte only people who know have been dead for hundreds of years. I wonder if you have heard of Ivan Panin? For the other half, Scrivener was usually able to find corresponding Greek readings in the editions of Erasmus, or in theComplutensian Polyglot. God bless! 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